The Prophet (Sallallahu-Alayhi-Wasallam) has exhorted and encouraged his Ummah to fast on this day. He said:
“This fast is a compensation for the (minor) sins of the past year.”
One should also observe the fast of the 9th Muharram to safeguard his deed from resemblance with the Non-Muslims who fast only on the 10th Muharram.
Hazrat Ibn Abbas (Radhiyallahu-Anhu) said:
“When Rasulullah (Sallallahu-Alayhi-Wasallam) observed the fast of the day of Aashora and ordered (his Companions) to fast, they said: `O Rasulullah! It is a day revered (glorified) by the Jews and Christians.’ Thereupon Rasulullah said: “The coming year, if Allah wills (I remain alive), I will for surely fast on the ninth (also).”
These Ahadeeth indicate clearly that one should fast on the ninth and tenth of Muharram. However, if one does not manage to fast on the ninth, then he/she should fast on the eleventh of Muharram instead.
The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu-Alayhi-Wasallam) said:
“Observe the fast of Aashora and oppose the Jews. Fast a day before it or a day after.”
Hence, it is important to either fast on the ninth and the tenth or the tenth and the eleventh of Muharram. To fast only on the day of Aashora is Makrooh as stated by Allamah Ibn Aabideen Shaami.
One should be generous on one’s family and dependants and spend more on them than what is normally spent.
Rasulullah (Sallallahu-Alayhi-Wasallam) said:
These are the only actions supported by Ahadeeth.
Let us observe this great day according to the ways of Rasulullah (Sallallahu-Alayhi-Wasallam) and the Sahabah (Radhiyallahu-Anhum), and refrain from all innovations which deprive us of the blessings from Almighty Allah.
May Allah guide us all upon the Straight Path and save us from every act which brings His displeasure.